J Chromatogr A 14–44, PMID: 26948762, 10.1016/j.chroma.20. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). https://gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5210a1[accessed 17 June 2016]. Chen J, Ahn KC, Gee NA, Ahmed MI, Duleba AJ, Zhao L, et al. Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: A new type of endocrine disruptor? Ding SL, Wang XK, Jiang WQ, Meng X, Zhao RS, Wang C, et al. Photodegradation of the antimicrobial triclocarban in aqueous systems under ultraviolet radiation. Toxicol Sci 17–139, PMID: 26048654, 10.1093/toxsci/kfv113. Mc Avoy DC, Schatowitz B, Jacob M, Hauk A, Eckhoff WS. Measurement of triclosan in wastewater treatment systems. Contaminants of emerging concern in a large temperate estuary. Environ Health Perspect 133–1041, PMID: 19654909, 10.1289/ehp.0800247. J Hazard Mater 16–772, PMID: 20727675, 10.1016/j.jhazmat.20. Alvarez-Rivera G, Llompart M, Garcia-Jares C, Lores M. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin. J Am Water Works Assoc 45:4–13, PMID: 20046971, 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00284.x. The impact of bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the U. Int J Environ Res Public Health 57–5684, PMID: 26006133, 10.3390/ijerph120505657. Marshall NB, Lukomska E, Long CM, Kashon ML, Sharpnack DD, Nayak AP, et al. Triclosan induces thymic stromal lymphopoietin in skin promoting Th2 allergic responses. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25–6033, PMID: 24464075, 10.1007/s11356-013-2474-3. Thyroid-disrupting chemicals: interpreting upstream biomarkers of adverse outcomes. Identification of wastewater bacteria involved in the degradation of triclocarban and its non-chlorinated congener. Toxicol Sci 1–53, PMID: 20562219, 10.1093/toxsci/kfq180. Chemosphere 82–1686, PMID: 22000243, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. The high persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these dioxins and furans in the environment is well-established (Sinkkonen and Paasivirta 2000; Van den Berg et al. Furthermore, triclosan undergoes conversion to 2,8-dibenzodichloro--dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in water when exposed to natural sunlight (Aranami and Readman 2007; Latch et al. EPA 2001) that is also recognized by the State of California as a developmental toxicant [State of California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) 2017]. Phytoaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban has been observed in certain vegetable crops grown in biosolids-amended soils. One study calculated a terminal plasma half-life of 21h for triclosan (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Blood-borne triclosan and triclocarban can cross the placenta, and triclosan and its metabolites have been detected in umbilical cord blood at birth (Allmyr et al. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their metabolites have also been detected in human milk samples (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol –91, PMID: 23146048, 10.1111/all.12058. Water Res 91–3896, PMID: 12909107, 10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 0–572, PMID: 19822703, 10.1128/AAC.00615-09. Environ Toxicol Chem 83–2492, PMID: 12389930, 10.1002/etc.5620211130. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an urban estuary. Environ Sci Technol 09–3115, PMID: 21381656, 10.1021/es103650m.
national survey found triclosan in the urine of the majority of people tested (Calafat et al. Other studies have measured triclosan in the urine of pregnant women (Meeker et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 73–2979, PMID: 15273108, 10.1128/AAC.48.8.2973-2979.2004. Sci Total Environ 32–167, PMID: 18207219, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Snail bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyltriclosan in a North Texas, USA, stream affected by wastewater treatment plant runoff. Disruption of blastocyst implantation by triclosan in mice: Impacts of repeated and acute doses and combination with bisphenol-A. J Appl Toxicol 5–311, PMID: 21462230, 10.1002/jat.1660. Environ Toxicol Chem 8–976, PMID: 25546022, 10.1002/etc.2854. Food Chem Toxicol 5–129, PMID: 17011099, 10.1016/20. Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/110 of 27 January 2016 not Approving Triclosan as an Existing Active Substance for Use in Biocidal Products for Product-type 1. Environ Health Perspect 161–1268, PMID: 26908126, 10.1289/ehp.1409637. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 1–66, PMID: 16520937, 10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00103-5. Sci Total Environ 402–2114, PMID: 19054547, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Environ Int 7–562, PMID: 20452023, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Environ Sci Technol 797–10804, PMID: 22989227, 10.1021/es3028378. MBio 5:e01015–13, PMID: 24713325, 10.1128/m Bio.01015-13. Tamura I, Kagota K, Yasuda Y, Yoneda S, Morita J, Nakada N, et al. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: Triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and -thymol. Triclosan promotes epicutaneous sensitization to peanut in mice. Toxicol Sci 1–64, PMID: 18940961, 10.1093/toxsci/kfn225.
of Physics and Astronomy and Environmental Studies Program, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA Anthony Tweedale, MSc, Founder, R. Environ Health Perspect 103–1210, PMID: 18795164, 10.1289/ehp.11200. Am J Public Health 72–1381, PMID: 18556606, 10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610. Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, Della-Latta P, Larson E. Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community. The influence of age and gender on triclosan concentrations in Australian human blood serum. Triclosan: Environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils. Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan®] in human breast milk. uri=CELEX:32016D0110&from=EN [accessed 23 January 2017]. Aquat Toxicol 1–59, PMID: 26440146, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Lassen TH, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, et al. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Photochemical conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environ Sci Technol 7–695, PMID: 16509304, 10.1021/es051380x. Reprod Toxicol –77, PMID: 23261820, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Macherius A, Eggen T, Lorenz W, Moeder M, Ondruschka J, Reemtsma T. Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment. Ye X, Zhou X, Furr J, Ahn KC, Hammock BD, Gray EL, et al. Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. Zorrilla LM, Gibson EK, Jeffay SC, Crofton KM, Setzer WR, Cooper RL, et al. The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats.
Triclosan and triclocarban are not well regulated and may be found in 2,000 consumer and building products (Halden 2014). Triclosan has been detected in both raw and finished drinking water (Loraine and Pettigrove 2006), in ocean water (Xie et al.
In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2003; FDA 2016). Triclosan and triclocarban have been detected in the environment throughout the world. A nationwide survey detected triclosan in ∼60% of U.
Scientists from both academia and nonprofit organizations coauthored in 2016 to share current scientific research on two widely used antimicrobial chemicals and to motivate broader consideration of the long-term impacts of antimicrobial use (see Appendix I). received an unrestricted research grant from Gojo; Gojo had no role in the support of this research or any of A.
The Statement was introduced at DIOXIN 2016, the 36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants in Florence, Italy, and has been signed by more than 200 international scientists and medical professionals (see Appendix II).
Triclosan may also be transformed to methyl triclosan or to other products (Davis et al. Triclosan contains detectable contaminant levels of polychlorinated dioxins and furans, including toxic and carcinogenic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs, which are formed in amounts that vary with the quality of production technology [Menoutis and Parisi 2002; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2013; Zheng et al. For example, in one population sample (93% of milk samples over a wide range of concentrations (Toms et al. The ability of triclosan to partition into human milk raises concerns about impacts from exposure on nursing infants. Triclosan and triclocarban have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms (Chalew and Halden 2009; Tamura et al. The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to triclosan and triclocarban, coupled with their bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of triclosan and triclocarban throughout aquatic food chains in species such as algae, crustaceans, fish, and marine mammals (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Beecher N, Crawford K, Goldstein N, Kester G, Lono-Batura M, Dziezyk E. A National Biosolids Regulation, Quality, End Use, & Disposal Survey – Final Report. Tamworth, NH: North East Biosolids and Residual Association (NEBRA). Fate of triclosan and triclosan-methyl in sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Buth JM, Grandbois M, Vikesland PJ, Mc Neill K, Arnold WA. Aquatic photochemistry of chlorinated triclosan derivatives: potential source of polychlorodibenzo--dioxins. Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection. Environ Res 1–38, PMID: 24529000, 10.1016/j.envres.20. Orvos D, Versteeg D, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. Paul KB, Hedge JM, Bansal R, Zoeller RT, Peter R, De Vito MJ, et al. Developmental triclosan exposure decreases maternal, fetal, and early neonatal thyroxine: Dynamic and kinetic evaluation of a putative mode-of-action. Environ Sci Technol 31–8838, PMID: 24971846, 10.1021/es501100w. Chemosphere 5–827, PMID: 22273184, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Schebb NH, Flores I, Kurobe T, Franze B, Ranganathan A, Hammock BD, et al. Bioconcentration, metabolism and excretion of triclocarban in larval Qurt medaka ().
Triclosan is a “pre-dioxin” and is associated with formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) throughout its life cycle. Benthic organisms such as worms, crabs, and shellfish can be exposed to triclosan and triclocarban via particulate matter and sediments (Miller et al. In laboratory studies of algae, crustaceans, and fish, both triclosan and triclocarban have been shown to exhibit acute and subchronic toxicity at concentrations found in the environment (Tamura et al. Environ Sci Technol 0–395, PMID: 14750712, 10.1021/es030068p. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 44–1065, PMID: 22057832, 10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z. Am J Infect Control 9–218, PMID: 8807001, 10.1016/S0196-6553(96)90017-6. Environ Sci Technol 45–4551, PMID: 20476764, 10.1021/es1001105. Mortensen ME, Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Wright DJ, Pirkle JL, et al. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children’s Study. Food Chem Toxicol 1–370, PMID: 10722890, 10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00164-7. Environ Toxicol Chem 38–1349, PMID: 12109732, 10.1002/etc.5620210703. Toxicol Sci 17–379, PMID: 19910387, 10.1093/toxsci/kfp271. Philippat C, Botton J, Calafat AM, Ye X, Charles MA, Slama R, et al. Environ Health Perspect 125–1231, PMID: 23942273, 10.1289/ehp.1206335. Reprod Toxicol 4–401, PMID: 27638325, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Pycke BFG, Geer LA, Dalloul M, Abulafia O, Jenck AM, Halden RU. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.
Many of those 19 chemicals have been in widespread use for decades, and many are still allowed in a number of other over-the-counter personal care products as well as in consumer and building products. The Green Science Policy Institute [a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization] received funding from New York Community Trust that was used to support the contributions of A. A large amount of triclosan and triclocarban is therefore discharged directly to conventional wastewater treatment plants (Bester 2005; Halden and Paull 2005).
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned nineteen antimicrobial ingredients, including triclosan and triclocarban, in over-the-counter consumer antiseptic wash products based on insufficient evidence demonstrating their safety for long-term daily use and that they reduce the spread of illness and infection. received a grant from the National Science Foundation [CBET 0,967,163 (Using triclosan and polyhalogenated dibenzo--dioxins to elucidate the importance of natural and anthropogenic sources of OH-PBDEs in fresh and estuarine waters)] that ended in 2014. 2013) and because the antibacterial ingredient is highly diluted during the washing process. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment (Heidler and Halden 2009) and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide (Halden and Paull 2005; Singer et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used in products intended for washing [e.g., an estimated 96% of triclosan is used in products that are intentionally disposed of down the drain, such as soaps and detergents (Reiss et al. These substances are also used in products that may be frequently washed (e.g., textiles, food contact materials, plastic surfaces). sewage sludge found triclosan and triclocarban at high levels, on average in the tens of milligrams per kilogram dry weight [Halden 2014; U.
works with Science and Environmental Health Network and has no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare.